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An Introduction to Behavior Trees – Part 3

This post is the third and last part of the Introduction to Behavior Trees series. This part explains some implementation details of BTs.

Fast links for other parts and tutorials:

If you’re looking for actual code to use, check it out:


Decorator Examples

Inverter

Like the NOT operator, the inverter decorator negates the result of its child node, i.e., SUCCESS state becomes FAILURE, and FAILURE becomes SUCCESS. Notice that, inverter does not change RUNNING or ERROR states, as described in algorithm below.

 Succeeder

Succeeder is a decorator that returns SUCCESS always, no matter what its child returns. This is specially useful for debug and test purposes. The algorithm below shows the pseudo-code for this node.

 Failer

Inverse of suceeder, this decorator return FAILURE for any child result, as shown below.

 Repeater

Repeater decorator sends the tick signal to its child every time that its child returns a SUCCESS or FAILURE value, or when this decorator receives the tick. Additionally, a maximum number of repetition can be provided.

 Repeat Until Fail

This decorator keeps calling its child until the child returns a FAILURE value. When this happen, the decorator return a SUCCESS state.

Repeat Until Succeed

Similar to the previous one, this decorator calls the child until it returns a SUCCESS.

Limiter

This decorator imposes a maximum number of calls its child can have within the whole execution of the Behavior Tree, i.e., after a certain number of calls, its child will never be called again. The limiter pseudo-code is described in algorithm below.

Max Time

Max Time limits the maximum time its child can be running. If the child does not complete its execution before the maximum time, the child task is terminated and a failure is returned, as shown algorithm below.

Prioritizing Behaviors

Considering the composite nodes described in the previous post, the Behavior Tree traversal is performed with a dynamic depth-first algorithm (notice that, except by Parallel node, all composite nodes run a child at a time and run orderly from left to right). This procedure allows a definition of priority among behaviors in the tree: the left branch of the tree (starting from the root) contains the high-priority behaviors while the right branch contains the low-priority behaviors.

In order to exploit this, the designer must put important behaviors such as auto-preservation and collision avoidance at the left branches and low-priority behaviors such as idle or rest at the right branches. Notice that, depending on the agent, may be necessary to add an unconditional behavior as the lowest-priority in order to keep the tree executing at least this behavior.

Treating Running States

One common question when implementing a Behavior Tree is that: what to do in the next tick after a node returned a running state? There are two answer to it: starting the graph traversal from the running node or starting it over from the first node.

The major drawback of starting the tick at the node that returned the running state is that this node can take too much time running an action and, thus, avoiding the execution of most important behaviors. For instance, suppose a robot performing an action to follow a certain path; in the half way the robot finds a hole, but it cannot avoid it because the tree is running the action of path following.

Therefore, the best option is always start over the tree, and if a most-important behavior wants to run, the previous node stops.

Composite Node Extensions

Node*: Remembering Running Nodes

When we start the tree traversal at the root every tick, even after some node returned a running state, we can fall at the following situation. Suppose an agent performing a patrol behavior, which is illustrated by the figure below. Now suppose that the agent completed the first action (“go to point A”) at the tick 1 and then, the second action (“go to point B”) is started, returning a running state. At tick 2, the traversal starts from the top and reach the first action again, which will send the robot again to point A, thus, never completing the second action and never even calling the third one.

problem_running

The * extension over the Priority and Sequence nodes overcome this problem by recording the last child that returned RUNNING. The figure below shows the same example above but now using a sequence with * extension. After completed the first action (“go to point A”), the second action (“go to point B”) is executed and returned RUNNING state. In the next tick, the sequence node do not execute the first action, but jumps directly to the second one.

problem_running_2

This extension is only valid for the Sequence and Priority nodes. Parallel node does not suffer from the problem cited here, because it don’t execute its children sequentially but concurrently.

Node~: Probabilistic Choice

When an agent performs exactly the same sequence of actions given a particular situation, the agent may become predictable. The simplest way to avoid the predictability is to using random choices on some nodes. For example, an agent with a grasp behavior can randomly choose left or right hand to grasp some object.

The ~ extension allows Sequence and Priority nodes to randomly choose its children, instead of sequentially select them. The ~ nodes randomly choose one of its children to execute, then ignore the selected ones and choose other until all children were selected.

problem_random

A common use of this extension is to choose children with equiprobable distribution, but it can use other distributions by weighting the choices.

 Multi-Parenting

Behavior Trees provide the advantage of allowing reuse of conditions, actions or even subtrees. The reuse of subtrees can be done in two ways: creating a new instance of the branch or using the same branch but with multiple parents. Duplicating subtrees have a major drawback in the memory usage, because it consumes more memory than necessary to represent the same thing, specially when duplicating large subtrees. On the other hand, multiple parents save memory but prejudice the visualization of the tree, decreasing readability.

The solution to this problem is to use a hybrid approach: the duplication of the subtrees happens only in the level of control and visualization while multi-parenting is used in the level of implementation and execution. Notice that, the duplication of the subtrees is only virtual and does not apply to the real structure of the tree.

Handling Persistent Data

Autonomous intelligent agents, whether virtual or real, need an internal state to store its belief about the world. These beliefs may include information from its perception system (e.g., last known position of the enemy; last known position of the allies; etc.) and other computed information (e.g., world position).

Similarly, some actions in Behavior Tree may need to store information (e.g., total time running the child node; time since last action; total failures; etc.), but we do not want to add this inside the node because it would be attached to a specific agent, therefore, obligating the use of a different tree for all agents. Running a different tree for each agent is a waste of resources and may be impractical.

problem_memory

A common approach to fulfill the requirement for persistent data is using memory pools, which can be used to store information about the world and allow behaviors to read and write new information on it. Notice that, this memory pools are individually maintained for each agent, thus allowing to share a single Behavior Tree for hundreds of agents.

node_parallel

An Introduction to Behavior Trees – Part 2

This is the second part of the tutorial on Behavior Trees for games and robotics.

Fast links for other parts and tutorials:

If you’re looking for actual code to use, check it out:


The Behavior Tree (BT) was born in the game industry and was quickly adopted and adapted by game developers around the world. However, the formalism required by the academy was developed later, mainly because its use in robotics. The lack of documentation and formalism, in conjunction with the fast adaptation of the BT, resulted in inconsistencies (of names, structure and definition) among papers and tutorials, for both robotics and games. We follow the definition of (Marzinotto, 2014)  and (Ogren, 2012) to describe how a Behavior Tree is structured and how it works.

As discussed in the previous post, Behavior Trees provide some improvements over the Finite State Machines, having some advantages such as:

  • maintainability: transitions in BT are defined by the structure, not by conditions inside the states. Because of this, nodes can be designed independent from each other, thus, when adding or removing new nodes (or even subtrees) in a small part of the tree, it is not necessary to change other parts of the model.
  • scalability: when a BT have many nodes, it can be decomposed into small subtrees saving the readability of the graphical model.
  • reusability: due to the independence of nodes in BT, the subtrees are also independent. This allows the reuse of nodes or subtrees among other trees or projects.
  • goal-oriented: although the nodes of BT are independent, they are still related due to the tree structure of the model. This allows the designer to build specific sub-trees for a given goal without losing  flexibility of the model.
  • parallelization: BT can specify parallel nodes which run all children at the same time without losing the control of the model execution. This is possible because the parallelization is locally contained to the parallel node.

Despite the name, the Behavior Tree is actually defined as a directed acyclic graph, because a node can have many parents. This structure may not be found in some papers but it have some advantages in the reusability and performance. The multi-parenting will be discussed in the part 3 of this post.

The model is composed of nodes and edges. For a pair of nodes connected by an edge, the outgoing node is called the parent and the incoming node is the child. There is no limit of how much children a node can have. The child-less nodes are called leaves while the parent-less node is called root; the nodes that stand between the root and the leaves can be of two types, composite or decorator nodes. Each subtree defines a different behavior, which can be simple ones (composed of few nodes) or complex behaviors (composed of a large number of modes).

The root of the BT generates a signal (called tick) periodically following a frequency f. The tick is propagated through the tree branches according to the algorithm defined by each node type. When the tick reaches a leaf, the node perform some computation and return a state value SUCCESS, FAILURE, RUNNING or ERROR). Then the returned value is propagated back through the tree according to each node type. The process is completed when a state value is returned to the root. Notice that, the tick frequency of the tree is independent of the control loop frequency of the
agent.

Node Types

The nodes types are divided into 3 categories: composite, decorator or leaf, which are described in detail below. In the nodes description, I present a graphicall example of how to use a node in a real situation and I also present their algorithms. The algorithms may use the Tick function in the statement Tick(child[i]), which triggers the algorithm corresponding to the i-th child node.

Leaf Nodes

The leaf nodes are the primitive building blocks of the behavior tree. These nodes do not have any child, thus, they do not propagate the tick signal, instead, they perform some computation and return a state value. There are two types of leaf nodes (conditions and actions) and are categorized by their responsibility.

Conditions

A condition node checks whether a certain condition has been met or not. In order to accomplish this, the node must have a target variable (e.g.: a perception information such as “obstacle distance'” or “other agent visibility”; or an internal variable such as “battery level” or “hungry level”; etc.) and a criteria to base the decision (e.g.: “obstacle distance > 100m?” or “battery power < 10%?”). These nodes return SUCCESS if the condition has been met and FAILURE otherwise. Notice that, conditions do not return RUNNING nor change values of system. Graphically, condition nodes are presented by gray ellipsis, as shown in the image below.

 node_condition

Actions

Action nodes perform computations to change the agent state. The actions implementation depends on the agent type, e.g., the actions of a robot may involve sending motor signals, sending sounds through speakers or turning on lights, while the actions of a NPC may involve executing animations, performing spacial transformations, playing a sound, etc.

Notice that action may not be only external (i.e, actions that changes the environment as result of changes on the agent), they can be internal too, e.g., registering logs, saving files, changing internal variables, etc.

An action returns SUCCESS if it could be completed; returns FAILURE if, for any reason, it could not be finished; or returns RUNNING while executing the action. The action node is represented as a gray box, as shown in the figure below, which presents 4 different example actions.

node_action

Composite Nodes

A composite node can have one or more children. The node is responsible to propagate the tick signal to its children, respecting some order. A composite node also must decide which and when to return the state values of its children, when the value is SUCCESS or FAILURE. Notice that, when a child returns RUNNING or ERROR, the composite node must return the state immediately. All composite nodes are represented graphically as a white box with a certain symbol inside.

Priority

The priority node (sometimes called selector) ticks its children sequentially until one of them returns SUCCESS, RUNNING or ERROR. If all children return the failure state, the priority also returns FAILURE.

For instance, suppose that a cleaning robot have a behavior to turn itself off, as shown in the figure below. When the robot try to turn itself off, the first action is performed and the robot try to get back to its charging dock and turn off all its systems, but if this action fail for some reason (e.g., it could not find the dock) an emergency shutdown will be performed.

node_selector

 Sequence

The sequence node ticks its children sequentially until one of them returns FAILURE, RUNNING or ERROR. If all children return the success state, the sequence also returns SUCCESS.

The figure below presents an example of the sequence node in a behavior that can be part of a real unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a jet plane in a war game. In this behavior, the agent first verify if there is a missile following it, if it is true, the agent fires flares and then performs an evasive maneuver. Notice that, if there is no missile, there is not reason to fire flares nor to perform an evasive maneuver.

node_sequence

 Parallel

The parallel node ticks all children at the same time, allowing them to work in parallel. This node is a way to use concurrency in Behavior Trees. Notice that, using this node, the parallelization is contained locally, avoiding losing control of the execution flow as happens on the FSM.

Parallel nodes return SUCCESS if the number of succeeding children is larger than a local constant S (this constant may be different for each parallel node); return FAILURE if the number of failing children is larger than a local constant F; or return RUNNING otherwise.

As an example of use of a parallel node, consider an agent that is an intelligent house (real or virtual). The house have a behavior to turn the lights on and play music when it identifies that a human just entered the room.

node_parallel

Decorator Nodes

Decorators are special nodes that can have only a single child. The goal of the decorator is to change the behavior of the child by manipulating the returning value or changing its ticking frequency. For example, a decorator may invert the result state of its child, similar to the NOT operator, or it can repeat the execution of the child for a predefined number of times. The figure below shows an example of the decorator “Repeat 3x”, which will execute the action “ring bell” three times before returning a state value.

node_decorator

There is no default algorithm for decorators, it depends on their purpose. Next post I will present some common decorators used in games.

State Values

Following the definition proposed in (Champanard, 2012), we consider four different values for the node states:

  • SUCCESS: returned when a criterion has been met by a condition node or an action node has been completed successfully;
  • FAILURE: returned when a criterion has not been met by a condition node or an action node could not finish its execution for any reason;
  • RUNNING: returned when an action node has been initialized but is still waiting the its resolution.
  • ERROR: returned when some unexpected error happened in the tree, probably by a programming error (trying to verify an undefined variable). Its use depends on the final implementation of the leaf nodes.

 

Behavior Tree

An Introduction to Behavior Trees – Part 1

This post is actually part of the first draft of a report I’m doing for my PhD. My idea in PhD is to use Behavior Trees for both games and robotics, thus you will see some references and examples using robots here.

Fast links for other parts and tutorials:

If you’re looking for actual code to use, check it out:


 

The field of digital games and robotics have a common goal: to develop intelligent artificial agents to interact with the environment (whether real or virtual) and to interact with other agents (whether human or not).

In robotics, the robots are mechanical agents which act autonomously in real environments, such as houses, industries, farmlands or even in traffic. These agents have sensors and actuators to feel the entities of the environment and to interact with them. Robots can be used for different purposes, such as: to perform tasks dangerous for humans; to work in inaccessible places such as wreckage and pipes; to perform repetitive and mechanical tasks; to entertain people or to be used as a companion; among others. The actuators that the robot has and the actions it can perform depends on the environment and its goal. A robot that cleans the floor, for example, only need sensors to identify obstacles (such as walls, furniture, animals or people) and actuators to clean the floor (such as vacuum cleaners, brushes and cloths).

In games, an agent can be an object, a creature, a person, or even a system acting in the virtual world. Depending on the genre, mechanics and goal of the game, virtual agents may be desirable for several reasons, such as: to provide enemies and allies to the player and, thus, creating content to the game; to create intelligent entities that complement the virtual world, making the player experience more immersive; to create characters able to get the player’s empathy. In general, a virtual agent may interact with humans (as avatars in the game) or other artificial agents. Autonomous intelligent agents in games are called NPCs (non-playable characters) and, like robots, the sensors and action mechanisms of these agents varies accordingly to the environment and to its purpose. An NPC can, for example, be a potion seller human that simply stands in the city waiting for the player click on it or it can also be a companion cat that follows the player in every corner of the world and protects it when he or she is in danger.

Behaviors

To develop intelligent agents, it is necessary to build a vast repertoire of behaviors. Behavior involves controlling various actions over a period of time. For instance, imagine an action game where NPCs have a behavior of self-preservation. To perform this behavior, a NPC should check if it is in danger (e.g., below 10% of life), if true, the NPC performs actions to run away from the player. The number of behaviors that an agent can use indicate the number of different situations it can recognize and respond, such that an agent with few behaviors is more repeatable and predictable than an agent with many behaviors.

It is also important that the method used to control the agents also allows efficient coordination of behaviors, so that an agent can achieve its goal effectively, i.e., without performing random, unnecessary actions (a domestic robot with full battery does not need to change) or foolish actions (in battles a NPCs cannot stop to sell items).

Intelligent agents with large repertoires of effective behaviors make the experience in the interaction with humans more interesting, in both robotics and games. In addition, in games, these agents do not frustrate the player, allowing a greater immersion into the game. However, these results have a cost in the form of complexity, such as:

  • speed: many behaviors means high memory usage to keep them and high CPU usage to execute them. In robotics, the agents must respond quickly enough to not cause accidents or bother people (people do not want to wait too much only to robot understand a simple voice command) but they have major limitations of processing, memory and energy (depending on the type of the robot). In games, you may have plenty of these resources (depending on the device running the game), but they are divided among other modules of the game (in which the graphic rendering takes the most part of the resources).
  • transparency & reliability: developers must have total control over the agent actions. He or she must be able to debug and to know, in a relatively easy way, the internal state of the agent, being able to predict approximately its future actions. This requirement is particularly important for safety reasons. Losing control of what the agent does and when it should perform the behaviors can cause many problems. Robots can cause serious accidents (depending on the type and functions of the robot, it can even be a risk to the lives of human beings). Agents without control in games can ruin the player experience and impact on sales. Thus, the amount of behaviors can make the development harder and may result in an unreliable system.

Finite State Machines

Finite State Machine (FSM) is a widely used technique to implement and coordinate these behaviors. Each agent behavior is described in the model as a state and can be represented graphically as in the example below. Each state has transition conditions and the execution logic contained on it. Only one state can be running at at time and it is called the current state. A state only ceases to be the current one when it passes the execution to another state. The etransitions occurs only within the current state, i.e., the current state is who decides whether the transition will occur or not.

fsm_seal

FSM is a graphical model that allows an easy modeling of the agent behaviors and an easy understanding of the model. Furthermore, it is computationally efficient, since all changing conditions are inside the current state and no other state run simultaneously. However, FSM has big problems in real applications:

  • maintainability: when adding or removing a behavior, it is necessary to change the conditions of all other states that have transition to the new or old one. Big changes are more susceptible to errors that may pass unnoticed.
  • scalability: FSMs with many states lose the advantage of graphical readability, becoming a nightmare of boxes and arrows. Furthermore, higher the model, harder is to maintain it.
  • reusability: as the conditions are inside the states, the coupling between the states is strong, being practically impossible to use the same behavior in multiple projects.
  • goal-oriented: the FSM works as a Markovian process, i.e., knowing that a state is active, it is independent of the previous states. This causes a difficulty to coordinate states of the FSM to achieve different and variable goals.
  • parallelization: trying to run states in parallel on FSMs is a very big challenge, usually needing external modules to resolve conflicts and deadlocks.

Remarks

In 2005, the Behavior Tree (BT) was created to address the problem of control and decision making of NPCs in games, in a more efficient way compared to FSMs, and since then, BTs have been replacing FSMs in various segments, including robotics. In the next post, I will define what is exactly a Behavior Tree and explain what are its advantages and, step-by-step, how its works.

Alan Wake

I Am a Programmer and I Don’t Know Any Artist

Alan Wake

I know a lot of good programmers that want to develop games, but don’t go forward because they don’t know any artist and lack the skills to make something beautiful. For a while, I also complained about that. I am a skilled programmer, but I ain’t an artist, what should I do?

My answer for you is: stop whining and deal with it! Yes, you don’t need the artistic skill to create a copy of Bioshock Infinite, or the wonderful atmosphere of Alan Wake. You need, most of cases, simple graphics. You may want to create a ultra beautiful game with painted sprites that even Picasso would be proud, but you probably won’t. Recognize your limitations and adjust your game to what you can do. Go for simple graphics and work hard in the gameplay and other aspects of the game.

Following, I will give some tips to create you game art. I’m not a Picasso myself, but I can handle the basics. I hope I can help you in this process.

Know Your Tools

Before starting to draw something, you need to know what tools you will use, but remember that a tool itself doesn’t do anything, you do. Personally, I like vector graphics, for this I use Inkscape, but you can use Corel Draw, Illustrator or many other tools like them. You may like pixel art or 3D models – you can use GIMP, Blender, or even MS Paint – just choose the tool you feel more comfortable with and learn the basics.

For the final touches, I use GIMP. You can use Photoshop, Z Brush or any other tool related to your style of art. Again, just pick one and go through it.

Follow Tutorials

With your tools ready, go for tutorials. There is a lot of them around the internet, a simple search can reveal several great how to’s. I recommend you follow sites and blogs with general tutorials, such the 2D Game Art For Programmers and Tutplus, also take a look on Devian Art and other artistic forums where people create a lot of tutorials.

Do it for specific things too, for example, if you want to draw a simple sword for you game, take a look on google, you will find a lot of things, e.g.:

Use References

When you have a certain skill with your tools, go for references. Search images of real things, line drawing things, clip arts, etc. You don’t have to create everything from zero. For example, if you want to draw a hand, take a picture of your own hand, search for images of hands on google or use reference such this one:

Hand Reference Sheet by Ultimate Iron Giant (http://ultimateirongiant.com)
Hand Reference Sheet by Ultimate Iron Giant (http://ultimateirongiant.com)

Learn With The Bests

When you see a game or a cartoon, pay attention to details. For example, cartoons usually have large borders, ridiculous proportions, fast movements, caricatured expressions, simple forms, poor shadows, just like the Dexter Laboratory. The Samurai Jack is other example, but now without any border, which makes it special among other Cartoon Network’s programs.

cartoons
Pay For It

If you are too lazy to learn new tools or can’t spend any time to do it, or even simply don’t want to, your solution is: pay for it! There is a lot of freelancer sites and forums where you can find artists and pay their prices.